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How to Limit the Effects of Temperature on CNC Performance

Views: 0     Author: Leapion     Publish Time: 2022-06-30      Origin:

    Temperature, especially during the hotter summer months, can have a profound impact on a CNC machine's performance. This article will review 2 factors that affect CNC temperature.

    Temperature, especially during the hotter summer months, can have a profound impact on a CNC machine’s performance. CNC machines can run for hours with no stoppage to complete one part. This enables an excessive amount of heat to develop in the workpiece, tool, and machine itself. While increased temperatures in the CNC machine have the potential to cause damage to CNC machine components and computers, increased temperatures in machine tools can lead to thermal deformation - causing diminished form and machining accuracy. This can potentially lead to dimensionally defective parts, excessive downtime, and consequently, reduced profits. There are many factors to consider when determining how best to limit the effects of excessively high temperature on CNC-machined parts: from the CNC machine itself to the frictional forces generated at the tool/work interface. This article will review 2 factors that affect CNC temperature and offer 4 tips to keep your CNC machine cool.


Two Factors that Affect CNC Temperature

    To better understand how you can limit the impact of high temperatures on CNC components and machine tools, it is important to identify the factors that affect it. Below are the main factors that affect both the CNC machine’s temperature and the temperatures at the tool/ work interface:

1. Climate and Machine-generated Heat

    Typical machine shops are a beehive of activity, with multiple CNC machines, computers, forklifts, heat-treating ovens, and other equipment all running simultaneously. Each one of these generates heat that the facility's air handling system must remove. Whether you're running a shop in an arid desert or in a very humid region, it's important to maintain a comfortable ambient temperature within the facility. Sustaining this comfortable temperature, however, is more easily said than done when several machines are running simultaneously.

    If the ambient temperature becomes too hot, it not only affects the health and safety of your workforce but can also impair the productivity of your CNC machines. From excessive tool wear to damaged computer systems, the effects of excessive heat and humidity can be devastating. Thankfully, temperatures can be regulated within manufacturing facilities by a variety of methods - from ventilation to evaporative cooling to central air conditioning.

2. Material Properties

    The material properties of the tool and the work have a major impact on localized heat generation. Ultimately, the goal is to control the temperature of the tool and workpiece to maintain dimensional stability of the final product and prolong tool life. Running a CNC operation for hours on end generates an intense amount of heat in both parts. Heat-related physical properties such as the coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, and specific heat, will dictate how fast a particular material will increase or decrease in temperature.

    For example, cemented carbide tools generally perform better than high-speed steel tools over long machine runs. This is due to their ability to retain high hardness and strength even when exposed to high temperatures. Conversely, workpiece materials commonly used in machining such as aluminum are more sensitive to heat and can change temperatures drastically. This leads to more quality issues as temperatures increase due to inadequate chip removal and dulling of tools, among other things. When it comes to CNC temperature, it's important to consider the material properties of both the tool and workpiece to balance both efficiency and quality.

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